2. Games of Chance


Aleatoric compositional games from Mozart to Cage. Chance as a decision-making process in computational art. Flavors of chance: white noise, 1/f noise, Brownian motion, Gaussian distributions, Perlin noise.

Listening
Charles Amirkhanian interview with John Cage (128 minutes). This recording includes extended samples of Cage's music. Know Cage through his music and not just through his words. Much of the interview is questions from the audience, interesting for Cage's sometimes unexpected replies. Part 2 optional.

Reading
Allan Kaprow: How to Make a Happening. This is a short text from a recording, which you may listen to if you have time.
Guy Debord, Theory of the Dérive, another short text. In what sense could happenings or dérives be considered algorithmic?
Martin Gardner, "White, Brown, and Fractal Music," essay from Fractal Music, Hypercards and More..., in the class portal.

Assignment
Chance operations piece: complete work started in class. Download the current version of IgnoCodeLib to help you.